vSphere CSI Driver - Block Volume

Volume Provisioning

There are two types of volume provisioning in a Kubernetes cluster:

  1. Dynamic Volume Provisioning
  2. Static Volume Provisioning

Dynamic Volume Provisioning

Dynamic volume provisioning allows storage volumes to be created on-demand.

Without dynamic provisioning, cluster administrators have to manually make calls to their cloud or storage provider to create new storage volumes and then create PersistentVolume objects to represent them in Kubernetes.

The dynamic provisioning feature eliminates the need for cluster administrators to pre-provision storage. Instead, it automatically provisions storage when it is requested by users.

The implementation of dynamic volume provisioning is based on the API object StorageClass from the API group storage.k8s.io A cluster administrator can define as many StorageClass objects as needed, each specifying a volume plugin (a.k.a provisioner) that provisions a volume and a set of parameters to that provisioner when provisioning. A cluster administrator can define and expose multiple flavors of storage (from the same or different storage systems) within a cluster, each with a custom set of parameters.

Dynamic Volume Provisioning is supported both in Vanilla Kubernetes clusters and Supervisor clusters.

The details for provisioning volume using topology and use of WaitForFirstConsumer volumeBinding mode with dynamic volume provisioning is described here

NOTE: The support for Volume topology is present only in Vanilla Kubernetes Block Volume driver today.

Dynamically Provision a Block Volume on Vanilla Kubernetes Cluster

This section describes the step by step instructions to provision a PersistentVolume dynamically on a Vanilla Kubernetes cluster

  • Define a Storage Class as shown here

      kind: StorageClass
      apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
      metadata:
        name: example-vanilla-block-sc
        annotations:
          storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true"
      provisioner: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
      parameters:
        storagepolicyname: "vSAN Default Storage Policy"  #Optional Parameter
      # datastoreurl: "ds:///vmfs/volumes/vsan:52cdfa80721ff516-ea1e993113acfc77/" #Optional Parameter
      # csi.storage.k8s.io/fstype: "ext4" #Optional Parameter
    
  • Import this StorageClass into Vanilla Kubernetes cluster:

          kubectl create -f example-sc.yaml
    
  • Define a PersistentVolumeClaim request as shown in the spec here

  • Import this PersistentVolumeClaim into Vanilla Kubernetes cluster:

          kubectl create -f example-pvc.yaml
    
  • Verify the PersistentVolumeClaim was created:

    Check to see if the PersistentVolumeClaim we just imported was created and has a PersistentVolume attached to it.

    The Status section below should show Bound if it worked and the Volume field should be populated.

    A PersistentVolume is automatically created and is bound to this PersistentVolumeClaim.

        $ kubectl describe pvc example-vanilla-block-pvc
          Name:          example-vanilla-block-pvc
          Namespace:     default
          StorageClass:  example-vanilla-block-sc
          Status:        Bound
          Volume:        pvc-7ed39d8e-7896-11ea-a119-005056983fec
          Labels:        <none>
          Annotations:   pv.kubernetes.io/bind-completed: yes
                         pv.kubernetes.io/bound-by-controller: yes
                         volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-provisioner: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
          Finalizers:    [kubernetes.io/pvc-protection]
          Capacity:      5Gi
          Access Modes:  RWO
          VolumeMode:    Filesystem
          Mounted By:    <none>
          Events:
            Type    Reason                 Age                From                                                                                                 Message
            ----    ------                 ----               ----                                                                                                 -------
            Normal  Provisioning           50s                csi.vsphere.vmware.com_vsphere-csi-controller-7777666589-jpnqh_798e6967-2ce1-486f-9c21-43d9dea709ae  External provisioner is provisioning volume for claim "default/example-vanilla-block-pvc"
            Normal  ExternalProvisioning   20s (x3 over 50s)  persistentvolume-controller                                                                          waiting for a volume to be created, either by external provisioner "csi.vsphere.vmware.com" or manually created by system administrator
            Normal  ProvisioningSucceeded  8s                 csi.vsphere.vmware.com_vsphere-csi-controller-7777666589-jpnqh_798e6967-2ce1-486f-9c21-43d9dea709ae  Successfully provisioned volume pvc-7ed39d8e-7896-11ea-a119-005056983fec
    

    Here, RWO access mode indicates that the volume provisioned is a Block Volume. In the case of File volume, the accessMode will be either ROX or RWX.

  • Verify a PersistentVolume was created

    Next, let's check if a PersistentVolume was successfully created for the PersistentVolumeClaim we defined above.

    If it has worked you should have a PersistentVolume show up in the output and you should see that the VolumeHandle key is populated, as is the case below

    The Status should say Bound. You can also see the Claim is set to the above PersistentVolumeClaim name example-vanilla-block-pvc

        $ kubectl describe pv pvc-7ed39d8e-7896-11ea-a119-005056983fec
          Name:            pvc-7ed39d8e-7896-11ea-a119-005056983fec
          Labels:          <none>
          Annotations:     pv.kubernetes.io/provisioned-by: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
          Finalizers:      [kubernetes.io/pv-protection]
          StorageClass:    example-vanilla-block-sc
          Status:          Bound
          Claim:           default/example-vanilla-block-pvc
          Reclaim Policy:  Delete
          Access Modes:    RWO
          VolumeMode:      Filesystem
          Capacity:        5Gi
          Node Affinity:   <none>
          Message:
          Source:
              Type:              CSI (a Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume source)
              Driver:            csi.vsphere.vmware.com
              VolumeHandle:      e4073a6d-642e-4dff-8f4a-b4e3a47c4bbd
              ReadOnly:          false
              VolumeAttributes:      storage.kubernetes.io/csiProvisionerIdentity=1586239648866-8081-csi.vsphere.vmware.com
                                     type=vSphere CNS Block Volume
          Events:                <none>
    

Dynamically provision a block volume in Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Service

In a Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Service, the StorageClass gets automatically created and is made available to it by the underlying Supervisor cluster. An example storage class looks like -

apiVersion: v1
items:
- apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
  kind: StorageClass
  metadata:
    name: gc-storage-profile
  parameters:
    storagePolicyID: 78b3d5e0-ab3f-4003-85ae-77c1b691a001
  provisioner: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
  reclaimPolicy: Delete
  volumeBindingMode: Immediate
kind: List
metadata:
  resourceVersion: ""
  selfLink: ""

User only has to perform the following to dynamically provision a block volume:

  • Specify the desired StorageClass name in the PersistentVolumeClaim spec
  • Create a PersistentVolumeClaim in the namespace using the spec mentioned in the previous step
  • Wait for CNS to create a PersistentVolume
  • Verify if the status of PersistentVolumeClaim set to Bound

Dynamically provision a block volume in Supervisor Cluster

In the case of Supervisor clusters, StorageClass creation happens automatically when a Storage Policy gets created. Following is an example of a StorageClass generated by one of the default storage policies within the cluster:

apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
kind: StorageClass
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: "2020-04-14T22:17:41Z"
  name: wcpglobal-storage-profile
  resourceVersion: "3477831"
  selfLink: /apis/storage.k8s.io/v1/storageclasses/wcpglobal-storage-profile
  uid: 0f84a03f-8a45-4116-8877-5ad0af28409c
parameters:
  storagePolicyID: 97aaf339-98c8-46d6-8c75-de49ea67f15d
provisioner: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
reclaimPolicy: Delete
volumeBindingMode: Immediate

The user has to do the following to provision a PersistentVolume:

  • Create a new storage policy or add an existing storage policy of interest to the current namespace
  • Specify the StoragePolicy name (which got created by the storage policy) in the PersistentVolumeClaim spec
  • Create a PersistentVolumeClaim in the namespace using the spec mentioned in the previous step
  • Wait for CNS to create a PersistentVolume
  • Verify if the status of PersistentVolumeClaim set to Bound

Comparison of Cluster Flavor and the corresponding Storage Class Parameters

Cluster Flavor Storage Class Parameters
Vanilla storagepolicyname, datastoreURL, csi.storage.k8s.io/fstype
Supervisor storagePolicyID
Tanzu Kubernetes Grid storagePolicyID

Static Volume Provisioning

If you have an existing persistent storage device in your VC, you can use static provisioning to make the storage instance available to your cluster.

How does it work

Static provisioning is a feature that is native to Kubernetes and that allows cluster administrators to make existing storage devices available to a cluster.

As a cluster administrator, you must know the details of the storage device, its supported configurations, and mount options.

To make existing storage available to a cluster user, you must manually create the storage device, a PeristentVolume, and a PersistentVolumeClaim. Because the PV and the storage device already exists, there is no need to specify a storage class name in the PVC spec. There are many ways to create static PV and PVC binding. Example: Label matching, Volume Size matching etc

Static Volume Provisioning is supported only in Vanilla Kubernetes clusters but not in Supervisor clusters

NOTE: For Block volumes, vSphere Cloud Native Storage (CNS) only allows one PV in the Kubernetes cluster to refer to a storage disk. Creating multiple PV's using the same Block Volume Handle is not supported.

Use Cases of Static Provisioning

Following are the common use cases for static volume provisioning:

  • Use an existing storage device: You provisioned a persistent storage(FCD) directly in your VC and want to use this FCD in your cluster.

  • Make retained data available to the cluster: You provisioned a volume with a reclaimPolicy: retain in the storage class by using dynamic provisioning. You removed the PVC, but the PV, the physical storage in the VC, and the data still exist. You want to access the retained data from an app in your cluster.

  • Share persistent storage across namespaces in the same cluster: You provisioned a PV in a namespace of your cluster. You want to use the same storage instance for an app pod that is deployed to a different namespace in your cluster.

  • Share persistent storage across clusters in the same zone: You provisioned a PV for your cluster. To share the same persistent storage instance with other clusters in the same zone, you must manually create the PV and matching PVC in the other cluster.

NOTE: Sharing persistent storage across clusters is available only if the cluster and the storage instance are located in the same zone.

Statically Provision a Block Volume in Vanilla Kubernetes Cluster

This section describes the step by step instructions to provision a PersistentVolume statically on a Vanilla Kubernetes cluster. Make sure to mention pv.kubernetes.io/provisioned-by: csi.vsphere.vmware.com in the PV annotation.

  • Define a PVC and a PV as shown below

          apiVersion: v1
          kind: PersistentVolume
          metadata:
            name: static-pv-name
            annotations:
              pv.kubernetes.io/provisioned-by: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
            labels:
              fcd-id: 0c75d40e-7576-4fe7-8aaa-a92946e2805d # This label is used as selector to bind with volume claim.
                                                           # This can we any unique key-value to identify PV.
          spec:
            capacity:
              storage: 2Gi
            accessModes:
              - ReadWriteOnce
            persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Delete
            csi:
              driver: "csi.vsphere.vmware.com"
              volumeAttributes:
                type: "vSphere CNS Block Volume"
              "volumeHandle": "0c75d40e-7576-4fe7-8aaa-a92946e2805d" # First Class Disk (Improved Virtual Disk) ID
          ---
          kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
          apiVersion: v1
          metadata:
            name: static-pvc-name
          spec:
            accessModes:
              - ReadWriteOnce
            resources:
              requests:
                storage: 2Gi
            selector:
              matchLabels:
                fcd-id: 0c75d40e-7576-4fe7-8aaa-a92946e2805d # This label is used as selector to find matching PV with specified key and value.
            storageClassName: ""
          ---
    
  • Import this PV and PVC into Vanilla Kubernetes cluster

          kubectl create -f static.yaml
    
  • Verify the PVC creation Check to see if the PVC we just imported was created and the PersistentVolume got attached to it. The Status section below should show Bound if it worked and the Volume field should be populated.

          $ kubectl describe pvc static-pvc-name
          Name:          static-pvc-name
          Namespace:     default
          StorageClass:
          Status:        Bound
          Volume:        static-pv-name
          Labels:        <none>
          Annotations:   pv.kubernetes.io/bind-completed: yes
                         pv.kubernetes.io/bound-by-controller: yes
          Finalizers:    [kubernetes.io/pvc-protection]
          Capacity:      2Gi
          Access Modes:  RWO
          VolumeMode:    Filesystem
          Mounted By:    <none>
          Events:        <none>
    
  • Verify the PV was created Let's check if the PV was successfully attached to the PVC we defined above. If it has worked you should have a PV show up in the output, and you should see that the VolumeHandle key is populated, as is the case below. The Status should say Bound. You can also see the Claim is set to the above PVC name: static-pvc-name

          $ kubectl describe pv static-pv-name
          Name:            static-pv-name
          Labels:          fcd-id=0c75d40e-7576-4fe7-8aaa-a92946e2805d
          Annotations:     pv.kubernetes.io/bound-by-controller: yes
                           pv.kubernetes.io/provisioned-by: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
          Finalizers:      [kubernetes.io/pv-protection]
          StorageClass:
          Status:          Bound
          Claim:           default/static-pvc-name
          Reclaim Policy:  Delete
          Access Modes:    RWO
          VolumeMode:      Filesystem
          Capacity:        2Gi
          Node Affinity:   <none>
          Message:
          Source:
              Type:              CSI (a Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume source)
              Driver:            csi.vsphere.vmware.com
              VolumeHandle:      0c75d40e-7576-4fe7-8aaa-a92946e2805d
              ReadOnly:          false
              VolumeAttributes:      type=vSphere CNS Block Volume
          Events:                <none>
    

Statically Provision a Block Volume in vSphere with Kubernetes

vSphere 7.0 did not support static volume provisioning in vSphere with Kubernetes aka supervisor cluster. Static volume provisioning is a process where an existing volume on the storage is made available in the Kubernetes cluster. There are use cases where we want to import existing volumes into supervisor cluster.

A new CnsRegisterVolume API is introduced in vSphere 7.0 Update1 release in vSphere with Kubernetes that allows importing an existing CNS volume or First Class Disk (FCD) or vmdk into a supervisor namespace. CnsRegisterVolume API objects are namespaced objects and once created successfully it would create a PVC in that namespace and a PV bound to that PVC.

NOTE: Please note that CnsRegisterVolume API instances cannot be created by normal SV devop users.

  1. Import CNS volume or First Class Disk (FCD) into Supervisor Cluster.

       apiVersion: cns.vmware.com/v1alpha1
       kind: CnsRegisterVolume
       metadata:
         name: import-mongodb
       spec:
         pvcName: mongo-pvc
         volumeID: fe1efbd0-79f7-4a2f-a8a9-69852e62225a
         accessMode: ReadWriteOnce
    
    • pvcName is the name of the PVC that will be created in the namespace.
    • volumeID is the CNS volume Id or FCD Id that will be imported into the supervisor namespace. CNS volume Id is available on CNS UI.
    • accessMode indicates whether its a block or a file volume. Currently only block volume with ReadWriteOnce is supported.
  2. Import VMDK into Supervisor Cluster.

       apiVersion: cns.vmware.com/v1alpha1
       kind: CnsRegisterVolume
       metadata:
         name: import-mongodb
       spec:
         pvcName: mongo-pvc
         diskURLPath: https://10.161.1.195/folder/testdisk2.vmdk?dcPath=test-vpx-1586388419-26155-wcp.wcp-sanity&dsName=nfs0-1
    
    • diskURLPath this field would identify the URL path to an existing disk that will be used to import into supervisor namespace. Format: https://<vc_ip>/folder/<vm_vmdk_path>?dcPath=<datacenterPath>&dsName=<datastoreName>
    • accessMode will be defaulted to ReadWriteOnce in this case.

Statically Provision a Block Volume in Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Service

You can statically create a block volume in Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Service (TKGS) using an unused PersistentVolumeClaim (PVC) from the Supervisor cluster only if the latter satisfies the following conditions:

  • It is present in the same Supervisor cluster namespace where the TKGS was created

  • Not attached to a Pod in the Supervisor cluster or in any other TKGS

Using static provisioning, a PVC created by one TKGS can also be re-used in another TKGS when the volume is no longer needed in the former one. In order to do so, you need to modify the Reclaim policy of the PV in the old TKGS to Retain and then delete the corresponding PVC. Follow the steps below to statically create a PVC in the new TKGS using the information from the leftover underlying volume.

Steps to create a static PVC in a TKGS are as follows:

  1. Note the name of the PVC in the supervisor cluster. If you are re-using a PVC from an old TKGS, then this value can also be retrieved from the volumeHandle of the old PV object in the TKGS.

  2. Create a PersistentVolume with the storageClassName preferably set to the storage class name of your supervisor cluster PVC and the volumeHandle pointing to the value retrieved in step 1. If you are re-using a volume from another TKGS where it is no more required, delete the PVC and PV object from the old TKGS before creating a PV in the new TKGS.

       apiVersion: v1
       kind: PersistentVolume
       metadata:
         name: static-tkg-block-pv
         annotations:
           pv.kubernetes.io/provisioned-by: csi.vsphere.vmware.com
       spec:
         storageClassName: gc-storage-profile
         capacity:
           storage: 2Gi
         accessModes:
           - ReadWriteOnce
         persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Delete
         claimRef:
           namespace: default
           name: static-tkg-block-pvc
         csi:
           driver: "csi.vsphere.vmware.com"
           volumeAttributes:
             type: "vSphere CNS Block Volume"
           volumeHandle: "supervisor-block-pvc-name"  # Mention the PVC name from Supervisor cluster here
    
  3. Create a PVC to match the PV object created above. Also set the storageClassName to the same value as above.

       kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
       apiVersion: v1
       metadata:
         name: static-tkg-block-pvc
       spec:
         accessModes:
           - ReadWriteOnce
         resources:
           requests:
             storage: 2Gi
         storageClassName: gc-storage-profile
         volumeName: static-tkg-block-pv
    
  4. Check if the PVC is bound to the PV we created on step 2.

     $ kubectl get pv,pvc
     NAME                                    CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM                          STORAGECLASS         REASON   AGE
     persistentvolume/static-tkg-block-pv    2Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    default/static-tkg-block-pvc   gc-storage-profile            10s
    
     NAME                                         STATUS   VOLUME                CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS         AGE
     persistentvolumeclaim/static-tkg-block-pvc   Bound    static-tkg-block-pv   2Gi        RWO            gc-storage-profile   10s
    

Static provisioning is complete.

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